Type 2 Diabetes

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Type 2 diabetes is also known as non insulin dependent diabetes.

This type of diabetes is often occurred in adulthood and it is said to be associated with obesity. Instead of not able to produce insulin or little insulin, the pancreas produces not enough insulin in this type of diabetes to maintain a normal sugar level. The insulin produced is either not enough or the cells ignore it (insulin resistance). Due to the cells insensitivity to the insulin, sometimes the pancreas even produces more insulin than non diabetics.


Gestational Diabetes

Pregnant women who have high blood sugar (glucose) levels during pregnancy can develop a type of diabetes mellitus called gestational diabetes. What are the causes of it? It is said to be coming from the hormones released from the placenta which can help in the baby growth. However, these hormones affect the effectiveness of the insulin in mother’s body. Consequently, the mother may need to use as much insulin as up to three times more than the baseline. When the pancreas is not able to make enough insulin for pregnancy, the glucose level in the blood stream rises up.

Many women who have this type of diabetes during pregnancy go on to develop diabetes mellitus type 2 within 4 years. To prevent this, some basic lifestyle changes such as weight loss, healthy diet and exercise will help.

Is Gestational Diabetes Affecting the Baby?

Yes, when it is not properly treated, it can hurt the baby. The mother’s body supply nutrients and glucose to the baby. When the mother has high glucose level in the blood stream, the extra glucose goes to the baby via the placenta. The baby’s pancreas will need to produce more insulin to get rid of the blood glucose. The extra glucose is giving extra energy, and when the extra energy is not in used, it is stored as fat in the baby’s body and it becomes a “fat” baby. Due to the excess insulin produced during the pregnancy, the newborns may experience low glucose levels at birth, at higher risk for breathing problem, at higher chance of getting obese and develop type 2 diabetes at a later stage. Common treatment for gestational diabetes includes special meal plans, physical activity, close monitoring of blood sugar level and insulin injection.

The best way is to get treatment for gestational diabetes always includes special meal plans and scheduled physical activity. It may also include daily blood glucose testing and insulin injections.

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Complications of Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus type 2, if left untreated, can be life threatening and lead to other complications such as follows.

  • High blood sugar (hyperglycemia):
    Causes of high blood sugar include eating food or drinking beverages that are high in sugar and physically inactive to burn consumed carbohydrates and sugar, not taking enough insulin medications, getting sick like infection and flu, and stress. Symptoms include fatigue, exceptional thirsty, frequent urination, nausea and vomiting, and blurred vision. Meal plan and medications are required to treat this situation.
  • Low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia):
    Causes of low blood sugar include skipping meal, taking too much insulin medication which lower the blood sugar, not enough carbohydrates intake and getting more exercise than normal. To prevent low blood sugar, impose a regular blood sugar level check and pay attention to early symptoms like light headed, increased hunger, sweating, shakiness, dizziness and confusion.
  • Ketoacidosis:
    Although it is less common in diabetes mellitus type 2, watch out for symptoms similar to high blood sugar. Always monitor the sugar level, if it is more than 200 mg/dl for 2 consecutive tests, go for ketones test, this can be detected by urine.

Like type 1 diabetes, the complications will lead to serious and chronic situations like heart disease, nerve damage, skin disorder, eye damage, food damage, kidney malfunction, osteoporosis and Alzheimier’s disease.

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Reference

Type 2 Diabetes. Available from Wikipedia (Assessed on 28th April 2009)


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